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Sun, December 16, 2018
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Galatians 1


Daily Prayer New Testament

American Bible

Verbatim Translation


1-5 To the Churches of Galatia,

From Paul - an apostle sent, not by mortal men, but by Jesus Christ - and from the brothers who are with me:

Grace to you, and peace, from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave Himself to rescue us from this evil world, carrying out the will of the Father. All honor and glory to Him, now and forever.

6-8 I am astonished to hear that you have deserted the true Gospel of Christ and have begun to follow perverted “gospels” taught to you by fakes and con men. I call these “gospels”, but it is a misnomer. There is one and only one Gospel: the one I have taught you. If I myself should come and preach something different to you – if an angel should descend from the heavens and tell you something different – turn your back and walk away. These teachings, and those who promote them, are accursed!

9 I have said it before and I will say it again, in writing: those who teach their own thoughts and call them the Word of God are accursed.

10 Perhaps they tell you what you want to hear. But I live to please God, not men. Pleasing an audience is not my goal. I will not compromise the truth, for if I did, I could not call myself a servant of Christ.

11-12 Do you think human beings wrote the Gospel I taught to you? Not so! It is the very Word of God, revealed to me directly by Jesus Christ. From men, I have learned none of it.

13-14 You should realize all of this from my history. I hunted down Christians with more zeal than any other Jew in Judea, outstripping the other young men of my generation. I was making my mark in the world; I was making my mark in the world; I seemed destined to become a leader of the Pharisees.

15-16 But from the time I was in my mother's womb, God had other plans for me. And when the time pleased Him, He revealed His Son to me, that Christ might be revealed in me and through me to the Gentiles.

17-19 Exactly where do you think I got my teaching? I did not go to Jerusalem after my conversion, to be taught by those who were apostles before me. I did not consult with flesh and blood at all: I went to Arabia, and then, back to Damascus. It was three years before I went to Jerusalem to meet Peter. I stayed with him for two weeks only. I did not even see any of the other apostles, except to meet James, the Lord’s brother.

21-24 After that, I traveled to Syria and Cilicia, where my face was completely unknown. But they had heard one thing about me: “The Persecuter now preaches the faith he once persecuted.” And they gave glory to God for my transformation.

20 Hear me: As I stand before God, what I write is true.

1 Paul, an apostle sent not from men. nor through men, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead, 2 and all of the brethren with me. To the churches of Galatia: 3 Grace to you and peace, for God our Father and Lord Jesus Christ, 4 who gave Himself for our sins, so that He might deliver us from this evil age, in accordance with the will of God our Father. 5 to whom be glory forever. Amen.

6 I am astonished that you have so quickly abandoned your calling by Christ in grace for another gospel — 7 which does not exist, except that there are people who trouble you by misstating the gospel of Christ. 8 Even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a different Gospel than what we have preached to you, it is a curse. 9 As we have said before, and now again I say, if someone you evangelizes with different from what you received, it is anathema.

10 Do I now seek the approval of men, or God? Or am I trying to please men? If I am trying to please men, I am not a servant of Christ. 11 For I make known to you, brothers, a gospel that is not of men; 12 for I did not receive it from man, nor was I taught about it by man, but through the revelation of Jesus Christ.

13 You have heard of my former way of life in Judaism, how intensely I used to persecute the church of God and was trying to destroy it. 14 And I was getting ahead of many contemporaries of my generation in Judaism, being extremely zealous about the traditions of my father.

15 But when it pleased God, having set me apart in the womb of my mother to be called through His grace, 16 to reveal His son to me so that I might preach Him to the Gentiles, I did not consult with flesh and blood, 17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to the previous apostles, but rather, I went away to Arabia and then returned to Damascus. 18 Then, after three years, I went up into Jerusalem to visit Peter, and remained with him fifteen days; 19 but I saw none of the other apostles, save James, the brother of the Lord. 20 And what I write to you, truly before God I do not speak falsely.

21 Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 22 I was personally unknown to the church of Christ in Judea, 23 and they only heard, “The one who previously persecuted now evangelizes the faith he once tried to destroy,” 24 and they glorified God because of me.

1 Paul apostle, not from men nor by aNormally the word translated by is translated as through, but here it indicates personal agency; the most likely meaning is that he is acting as the representative of Christ Himself. The preceding from men (notice that it is plural) might be taken to indicate the source of his Gospel, considering the later arguments in Galatians, or it could be roughly parallel to the by man, reinforcing the idea by saying it twice in slightly different ways. man but by Jesus Christ and god father the having-raised him from dead,

2 and the with me all brothers, to the churches of Galatia;

3 grace to you and peace from god father of us and lord bGrammatically, this could mean and of Jesus Christ, strengthening the idea of our co-inheritance; but it would be an eccentric reading. Jesus Christ,

4 the having-given himself for the sins of us so that he takes-away cBy extension, delivers. us from the present evil age dThe word translated age is indefinite in term and susceptible to theological interpretation. Grammatically, it might refer to a time period as narrow as a generation or as broad as the time from Adam’s sin to the Second Coming. In some passages, in fact, it refers to the world itself, or human society, more than to a period of time. according to the will of the god and father of us,

5 to whom the glory in the age of the ages; amen.

6 I am astonished that so quickly you switch eOr desert. from the calling you in fAlt. by. grace of Christ into other gospel,

7 which not exists other; except some are the disturbing you and wanting to redirect gOr pervert, or distort. the gospel of Christ.

8 But even if we or angel from heaven were to evangelize different from what we have evangelized to you, he/it hThere is no prounoun (he or it) in the original text; Greek prounouns are often, as here, implied. The subject could thus be either he or it, referring to the speaker or the false gospel itself. As with many Pauline ambiguities, the best course is to assume he meant both. is cursed iThe last phrase is imperative in form and the shallow and immediate reading (seen in many Bibles) is He (or it) must be cursed, or let him (it) be accursed. But that is not what it means. This is a “pronouncement imperative”, since a person can hardly be required to curse himself. (The form is not such that it can be read as a command for the listener to curse such a person.) It is an emphatic way of saying he is cursed immediately by his act. See Wallace at 492. .

9 As we have said before, and now again I say, if someone you evangelizes with different from what you received, he jOr it. is anathema kAnathema, oddly, is a perfect transliteration of the Greek word used here and in v. 10. It means to be the object of God’s disfavor. Paul comes as close as possible to saying “damned” without foregoing the possibility of repentence.
.

10 For now men am I persuading lOr seeking approval of. The translation “trying to persuade” is gramatically more correct and better-attested, and I think it is accurate. But centuries of translation have set “seeking approval” in stone for most translations. Of published authorities, only BDAG questions the traditional interpretation. or god? Or I am seeking to men to please? If still to men I was pleasing, of Christ servant not I was being.

11 For I make known to you, brothers, the gospel having-been-preached by me that not is from men;

12 for neither I from man received it, nor I was taught, but through revelation of Jesus Christ.

13 For you heard about my way-of-life former in Judaism, how in extreme mFyi, the term used here is a near-transliteration of the English word hyperbole (meaning “overstatement” or “exaggeration”). I used to persecute the church of god and was destroying nOr trying to destroy it. it,

14 And I was progressing oLit. was chopping forward, as if with a machete; Paul evokes an image of ruthless ambition, as we must realize that it is people who are being chopped. in Judaism over many contemporaries in generation of me, even more greater zealot being of the handed-down of me traditions.

15 And when pleased god pThe entire verse after “god” is a subordinate clause modifying “god”; English would set it off with commas. the setting-apart me from womb of mother of me and calling through the grace of him

16 to reveal the son of him to qOr in. me that I might preach him to rOr among. the gentiles, immediately not did I consult flesh and blood,

17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to the before me apostles, but went out into Arabia, and again returned to Damascus.

18 Then after years three I went up into Jerusalem to meet sA narrow verb meaning “visit in order to get to know” someone, from a root meaning inquire. Cephas, and remained with him days fifteen;

19 but other of the apostles not I saw, except James the brother of the lord.

20 And what I write to you, behold before god that not I falsify.

21 Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia.

22 Yet I was being-unknown in face to the churches of Judea in Christ,

23 and solely hearing they were that “the persecuting formerly now is preaching the faith which formerly he destroyed” tOr tried to destroy. ,

24 and glorified in u Or because of me. me god.



Notes for Verbatim Translation:


a. Normally the word translated by is translated as through, but here it indicates personal agency; the most likely meaning is that he is acting as the representative of Christ Himself. The preceding from men (notice that it is plural) might be taken to indicate the source of his Gospel, considering the later arguments in Galatians, or it could be roughly parallel to by man, reinforcing the idea by saying it twice in slightly different ways.
b. Theoretically, this could mean and of Jesus Christ, strengthening the idea of our co-inheritance; but it would be an eccentric reading. c. By extension, delivers.
d. The word translated age is indefinite in term and susceptible to theological interpretation. Grammatically, it might refer to a time period as narrow as a generation or as broad as the time from Adam’s sin to the Second Coming. In some passages, in fact, it refers to the world itself, or human society, more than to a period of time.
e. Or desert.
f. Alt. by.
g. Or pervert, or distort.
h. Possibly it.
i. The last phrase is imperative in form: He must be cursed, or let him be cursed. But that is not the meaning. This is a “pronouncement imperative”, since a person can hardly be required to curse himself. (The form is not such that it can be read as a command for the listener to curse such a person.) It is an emphatic way of saying he is cursed immediately by his act. See Wallace at 492.
j. Or it.
k. Anathema, oddly, is a perfect transliteration of the Greek word used here and in v. 10. It means to be the object of God’s disfavor. Paul comes as close as possible to saying damned without foregoing the possibility of repentence.
l. Or seeking approval. The translation “trying to persuade” is gramatically more correct and better-attested, but centuries of translation so that this mimics the following sentence have set “seeking approval” in stone for most translations. Of major published authorities, only BDAG questions the traditional interpretation.
m. Fyi, the term used here is a near-transliteration of the English word “hyperbole” (meaning “overstatement” or “exaggeration”).
n. Or trying to destroy it.
o. Lit. was chopping forward, as if with a machete; Paul evokes an image of ruthless ambition, as it is people who are being chopped.
p. The entire verse after “god” is a dependent clause modifying “god”; English would set it off with commas. q. Or in.
r. Or among.
s. A narrow verb meaning visit in order to get to know someone, from a root meaning inquire.
t. Or tried to destroy.
u. Or because of me.



Quickie Key (Text)

1. Italicized words are implied but not spelled out in the Greek.

2. Words are kept in original order, with rare exceptions.

3. Omissions are not noted and do not affect meaning.

4. Hyphenated terms represent either a single Greek word that must be translated as a phrase in English, or an adjectival phrase that has been moved in front of the noun it modifies (the not-knowing-god Gentiles) or both (the being-left-behind living).

Key (Footnotes)
1. or = indicates an alternate, equally sound translation.
2. alt. = alternately. A reasonable alternate translation, but the one given is slightly more sound.
3. poss. = possibly. A possible translation, but not as sound as the one used.
4. lit. = literal or literally. Used in cases where idiomatic English is used in the text, because it is simply too difficult to glean the meaning from direct translation.
5. by extension = indicates a meaning that is correct and fully understood in Greek and will be found as a meaning in a Greek-Engish lexicon, but was not the original meaning of the word. For example, the original Greek word unseen had been extended to mean unexpected by the time the NT was written.
6. by transfer = identical to “by extension”, but with a greater jump in meaning. Often an abstraction from a more concrete term.
7. most lit. = an older, more literal meaning; used when a Greek extension or transfer is given in the text. The opposite of “by extension/transfer,” i.e. the extended meaning is given in the text.
8. idiom = English meaning of a difficult Greek idiom. I.e. “not not” in Greek means “definitely not” in English. We translate the raw Greek “not not” and indicate the idiomatic meaning by footnote.
9. per ______ = an authority has another primary meaning; generally BDAG, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (3d ed.)
10. fyi = for your information; something that the reader might find interesting, not directly relevant to this translation.